英语四级真题长难句解析

英语四级 时间:2018-02-14 我要投稿

英语四级真题长难句解析

  英语四级阅读备考:真题长难句解析

  1、Ultimately, however, our basic design strategy is focused not simply on being “less bad” but on creating completely healthful materials that can be either safely returned to the soil or reused by industry again and again.

  【分析】本句为复合句。句子主干为our basic design strategy is focused not on being “less bad” but on creating healthful materials。that引导定语从句,修饰materials。however 意为“然而”,是插入成分。not…but…意为“不是……而是……”,连接两个介词短语。either…or…意为“或者……或者……”,表示并列结构。

  【译文】然而最终,我们的基本设计目标不仅是简单地关注于“较低危害”,而是发明完全有益于健康的材料,这种材料或可以无害地回归土地,或可以被工业重复利用。

  2、As you sleep you pass through a sequence of sleep states — light sleep, deep sleep and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep — that repeats approximately every 90 minutes.

  【分析】本句为复合句。主句主干为you pass through a sequence of sleep states。as引导时间状语从句,表示“当……时”。that引导非限制性定语从句,修饰a sequence of sleep states,that在从句中作主语。light sleep, deep sleep and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep 是插入成分,具体说明 states 的内容。

  【译文】人们睡觉时经历了一连串的睡眠阶段——浅度睡眠阶段,深度睡眠阶段,快速眼动睡眠阶段——大约每90分钟重复一次。

  3、You program the clock with the latest time at which you want to be wakened, and it then duly(适时地) wakes you during the last light sleep phase before that.

  【分析】本句为并列复合句。句子主干为You program the clock, and it wakes you。at which 引导定语从句,修饰 time,which 在从句中作时间状语,at+时间是固定搭配,所以 which 之前加介词 at,表示在某一具体时间点。句末的 that 指代 the latest time。

  【译文】将闹钟调好至你想起床的时间,它便会适时地在之前的最后一个浅眠期将你叫醒。

  4、Home builders can now use materials — such as paints that release significantly reduced amounts of organic compounds — that don’t destroy the quality of the air, water, or soil.

  【分析】本句为复合句。主句为Home builders can now use materials。such as… compounds是举例说明,作插入语。第一个 that 引导定语从句,修饰 paints;第二个 that 引导定语从句,修饰 materials。

  【译文】房屋建造者们现在可以使用不破坏空气、水或土壤的材料,如释放少量有机物的涂料。

  5、We’re giving people high-quality, healthful products and an opportunity to make choices that have a beneficial effect on the world.

  【分析】本句为复合句。主句为We’re giving people high-quality, healthful products and an opportunity to make choices。that 引导定语从句,修饰 choices,that 在从句中作主语。to make choices 作 opportunity 的定语。

  【译文】我们提供高质量和健康的产品,提供做选择的机会,他们可以选择对世界有益的产品。

  6、This jumping to our children’s defence is part of what fuels the “walking on eggshells” feeling that surrounds our dealings with other people’s children. (2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为…jumping to our children’s defence is part of…。what引导的宾语从句what fuels…feelings作of的宾语。that引导的定语从句that surrounds…children修饰feeling。

  【译文】这种对孩子的急切保护,加剧了我们在处理别人孩子的事情时,那种“在蛋壳上行走”的感觉。

  7、Assuming you make it to the end of your natural term, about 78 years for men in Australia, you’ll die on average five years before a woman. (2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为简单句。句子主干为 you’ll die…。Assuming…term 为条件状语。about 78 years for men in Australia作插入语,是对natural term的解释说明,去掉后,句子的语法结构和语义仍完整。

  【译文】假定你有幸活到了生命的自然尽头——在澳大利亚男性大概是78岁——你平均也要比女性早去世五年。

  8、Two months ago Gullotta saw a 50-year-old man who had delayed doing anything about his smoker’s cough for a year. (2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为复合句。主句为Gullotta saw a 50-year-old man。 who引导定语从句,修饰 a 50-year-old man。delay后常接动名词,表示“推迟做某事”。smoker’s cough指吸烟引起的咳嗽。

  【译文】两个月前,古丽塔遇见一位50岁的男人,他耽搁了一年而未对吸烟引起的咳嗽做任何处理。

  9、Store managers are often the last to hear complaints, and often find out only when their regular customers decide to frequent their competitors, according to a study jointly conducted by Verde Group and Wharton School. (2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为并列复合句。when引导时间状语从句,according to…是介词短语。conducted by Verde Group and Wharton School作后置定语修饰a study。the last one to do sth.意为“最后一个做某事的人”。

  【译文】据沃德集团和沃顿商学院所做的一份联合调查显示,商店经理总是最后一个接到投诉,并且通常是当他们的常客决定定期光顾他们的竞争对手时才发现。

  10、“Retailers who’re responsive and friendly are more likely to smooth over issues than those who aren’t so friendly,” said Professor Stephen Hoch. (2008年12月)

  【分析】本句中的直接引语为复合句。句子主干为Retailers are more likely to smooth over issues than those, more…than是比较级结构。第一个who引导的定语从句修饰Retailers,第二个who引导的定语从句修饰those。

  【译文】史提芬??霍克教授说:“与那些态度不友好的零售商相比,能够及时作出反应且态度友好的零售商更有可能平息事端。”

  英语四级阅读备考:真题长难句解析(3)

  11、He believes most diseases that commonly affect men could be addressed by preventive check-ups. (2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为He believes…diseases…could be addressed…。that引导的定语从句that commonly affect men修饰most diseases。by preventive check-ups为be addressed的方式状语。

  【译文】他相信,那些经常感染男性的疾病大多数都可以通过预防性的检查来处理掉。

  12、Shoppers seldom complain to the manager or owner of a retail store, but instead will alert their friends, relatives, coworkers, strangers — and anyone who will listen. (2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为Shoppers seldom complain to…but…will alert…。破折号在这里起到强调或引起别人注意破折号后面要说的话的作用。在破折号后,who引导的定语从句who will listen修饰的是anyone。

  【译文】顾客很少向经理或者零售店的老板投诉,相反,他们会转而向他们的朋友、亲戚、同事、陌生人——以及任何可以听到的人吐苦水。

  13、This guidance eliminated the need for customers to circle the parking lot endlessly, and avoided confrontation between those eyeing the same parking space. (2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为简单句,主干为This guidance eliminated the need…and avoided confrontation…。eyeing the same parking space为现在分词作后置定语,修饰those。

  【译文】这些引导消除了顾客在停车场无尽地兜圈子的必要,而且避免了顾客之间因抢占空车位而引发的冲突。

  14、Customers can also improve future shopping experiences by filling complaints to the retailer, instead of complaining to the rest of the world. (2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为简单句,主干为Customers can…improve…experiences。方式状语by filling complaints to the retailer修饰improve future shopping experiences。instead of表示否定,其前后成分结构一致,complaining前其实省略了by。

  【译文】顾客也可以通过向零售商投诉来改善今后的购物体验,而不是向全世界其他的人抱怨。

  15、A code of conduct is hard to create when you’re living in a world in which everyone is exhausted from overwork and lack of sleep, and a world in which nice people are perceived to finish last.(2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主句为A code of conduct is hard to create,从句为when引导的时间状语从句when you’re living…last。从句中又包括两个由介词in加which引导的定语从句in which everyone is…sleep和in which nice…last,先行词均为a world。

  【译文】当你生活在一个每个人都因加班工作、缺乏睡眠而筋疲力尽的社会,在一个好人最后总是吃亏的社会时,很难创造出一套行为准则。

  16、Todd Park, a local detective, said the method has helped him learn more about an unidentified woman whose skeleton was found near Great Salt Lake. (2009年6月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为Todd Park said…。a local detective为Todd Park的同位语。the method has…为省略了引导词that的宾语从句,该宾语从句中又包含一个由whose引导的定语从句whose skeleton…Lake,修饰的是woman。

  【译文】当地的侦探Todd Park说这个方法帮助他了解到关于一具在大盐湖附近发现的不明身份女尸骸的更多信息。

  17、He had a perfect résumé and gave good responses to her questions, but the fact that he never looked her in the eye said “untrustworthy,” so she decided to offer the job to her second choice. (2009年6月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为He had a…résumé and gave…responses, but the fact…said untrustworthy…so she decided…。从句that he never looked her in the eye为the fact的同位语。and连接He的两个谓宾,but表转折,so则表结果。

  【译文】这位应试者的履历非常完美,并且对她的问题回答得不错,但是,他不敢正视她这一事实意味着“不值得信赖”,因此她决定把工作留给第二个候选人。

  18、When we begin to question our assumptions and challenge what we think we have learned from our past, from the media, peers, family, friends, etc., we begin to realize that some of our conclusions are flawed (有缺陷的) or contrary to our fundamental values. (2009年6月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主句为we begin to realize…,从句为When引导的时间状语从句When we…etc.。主句中包括一个由that引导的宾语从句that some…values,作realize的宾语。从句中包含了一个由what引导的宾语从句what we think,作challenge的宾语;而think后又带了一个省略引导词的宾语从句we have learned from…etc.。

  【译文】当我们开始质疑自己的假设,并且向那些我们认为是从我们的过去、媒体、同辈、家人、朋友等那里学到的东西发出挑战的时候,我们就开始意识到我们的结论有些是有缺陷的,或者说与我们的基本价值是相违背的。

  19、We need to train ourselves to think differently, shift our mindsets and realize that diversity opens doors for all of us, creating opportunities in organizations and communities that benefit everyone. (2009年6月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为We need to…。to后带了三个并列的不定式,分别是train ourselves to think,shift our mindsets和realize,而that引导的宾语从句that diversity opens…us则作realize的宾语。creating…communities作伴随状语,该状语中又包括一个由that引导的定语从句that benefit everyone,修饰的是opportunities。

  【译文】我们需要训练自己用不同的思维方式去思考,转变我们的思维,并且意识到多元化的大门向我们每一个人开放,这样就能创造机会,使组织和社区中的每一个人都受益。

  20、They only come in when a friend drops dead on the golf course and they think, ‘Geez, if it could happen to him, …’(2008年12月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主句为They only come in,从句为when引导的时间状语从句。从句中包含两个由and连接的并列结构a friend drops dead和they think…。‘Geez…’为think的宾语,该宾语的省略号里其实省略了与it could happen to him结构对应的it could happen to me too。

  【译文】某个朋友在打高尔夫时猝死,他们会想:‘天啊,如果这能在他身上发生……’,只有这个时候他们才会来(医院)。

  21、Scott Hahn, cofounder with Gregory of Rogan and Loomstate, which uses all-organic cotton, says high-quality sustainable materials can still be tough to find. (2009年6月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为Scott Hahn says…。high-quality sustainable…find为says的宾语。which引导的.非限制性定语从句which uses all-organic cotton修饰的是Rogan and Loomstate。cofounder with Gregory为Scott Hahn的同位语。

  【译文】Scott Hahn与Gregory同为使用全有机棉的Rogan和Loomstate公司的创始人,他声称,高质量的可持续使用面料仍然很难寻觅到。

  22、Most designers with existing labels are finding there aren’t comparable fabrics that can just replace what you’re doing and what your customers are used to,” he says. (2009年6月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为Most designers…are finding…。there aren’t…used to为省略了that的宾语从句。that引导的定语从句that can just replace…修饰fabrics。what引导的两个宾语从句what you’re doing和what your customers are used to作replace的宾语。

  【译文】他说,“大多数现有品牌设计师发现,并没有匹配的面料能代替你正用着的和顾客们已经适应的面料。”

  23、Last year the influential trade show Designers & Agents stopped charging its participation fee for young green entrepreneurs (企业家) who attend its two springtime shows in Los Angeles and New York and gave special recognition to designers whose collections are at least 25% sustainable. (2009年6月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为… Designers & Agents stopped charging…and gave special recognition…。who引导的定语从句who attend its…York修饰entrepreneurs,whose引导的定语从句whose collections are…sustainable修饰designers。

  【译文】去年,颇具影响力的Designers & Agents对参加其在洛杉矶和纽约举办的两次春季展览的年轻环保企业家们实行免费入场,同时给予那些作品中包括至少四分之一可持续产品的设计师们以特别表彰。

  24、This week Wal-Mart is set to announce a major initiative aimed at helping cotton farmers go organic: it will buy transitional (过渡型的) cotton at higher prices, thus helping to expand the supply of a key sustainable material. (2009年6月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为Wal-Mart is set to announce a… initiative。aimed…organic为后置定语,修饰initiative。冒号后的句子it will buy…prices即initiative的内容,相当于initiative的同位语从句。helping to…sustainable作伴随状语。

  【译文】本周沃尔玛特打算宣布一大重要举措,旨在帮助种植棉花的农民走有机种植之路:它将以稍高价收购过渡型的棉花,以此帮助扩大一种主要的可持续使用面料的供应量。

  25、Scientists have devised a way to determine roughly where a person has lived using a strand (缕) of hair, a technique that could help track the movements of criminal suspects or unidentified murder victims. (2009年6月)

  【分析】本句为复合句,主干为Scientists have devised a way…。a technique为a way的同位语。where引导的宾语从句where…lived作determine的宾语。using…hair为现在分词作方式状语。that引导的定语从句that…victims修饰technique。

  【译文】科学家已经设计出一个方法,凭借人的一缕头发便能大致确定某人曾经居住过的地点,这项技术可能能够帮助跟踪锁定犯罪嫌疑人或不明身份案件受害人的活动场所。

  四级阅读理解长难句有以下六大特点:

  1、 主语拉长

  一般来讲,汉语主语比较简短。相比之下,英语中主语一旦拉长,就会增加读者的理解难度。

  解决方法:有效分解主谓成分,断开之后各个击破。例如:

  The streams, lakes, meadows(草地), mountain ridges and forests that make the Poconos an ideal place for balck bears have also attracted more people to the region. (2005.6)

  首先,把原句子分解为两个简单独立的句子:

  (1)The streams, lakes, meadows(草地), mountain ridges and forests that make the Poconos an ideal place for balck bears溪流、湖泊、草地、山脉、森林,使得Pocono成为黑熊理想的栖息地

  (2)have also attracted more people to the region. 吸引了越来越多的人们来到这里。

  其次,句子整合翻译:

  溪流、湖泊、草地、山脉、森林,这些不仅使得Pocono成为黑熊理想的栖息地,而且吸引了越来越多的人们来到这里。

  2、 分词短语打头,句子呈现三段(或三段以上)的长句式

  分词短语(包括现在分词和过去分词)做状语,这一句式比较常见,读者阅读时由于要区分短语和主语之间的逻辑关系,所以理解上有难度。并且分词短语本身往往由于掺入了插入语成分,理解上就更为困难。

  解决方法:理清主动和被动关系。一般来说现在分词与主语之间是主动关系;而过去分词与主语之间是被动关系。

  例如:

  Operating out of a century-old schoolhouse in the village of Long Pond, Pennsylvanis, the Conservancy’s Bud Cook is working with local people and business leaders to balance economic growth environmental protection. (2005.6)

  翻译:在宾西法尼亚州的朗庞德村庄有一栋上百年历史的校舍,大自然保护协会的成员巴德-库克就在这里办公,他与当地人民和商业领导合作,以努力平衡好经济发展与环境保护之间的关系。

  注意:介词短语位于句首类似分词短语形式。例如:

  In a time of low academic achievement by children in the United States, many Americans are turning to Japan, a country of high academic achievement and economic success, for possible answers. (2005.1)

  翻译:有一段时间,美国的儿童学业表现不尽如人意,许多人于是转向日本,想从中寻求可能的解决办法,因为日本不仅经济实力强,而且学术成就也很高。

  特别注意不定式to位于句首表目的,一定是考试重点。例如:

  原文:To prepare children for successful careers in first grade and beyond, Japanese schools do not teach reading, writing, and mathematics, but rather skills such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group. (2005.1)

  翻译:为了使孩子能在一年级和以后有良好的表现,日本的学校并不教授阅读、写作、和算数,而是教孩子们诸如毅力、注意力和群体合作能力等技巧。

  考题:In Japan’s preshcool education, the focus is on

  A. preparing children academically B. developing children’s artistic interests

  C. tapping children’s potential D. shaping children’s character

  3、 多个谓语动词连用

  简单句之所以简单是因为成分单一便于读者理解。而四级阅读理解中,出题人为增加阅读难度,就会把几个谓语动词放在一个句子当中。但是无论局势如何变化,英语句子本身就犹如一棵大树,只能有一个主干起支撑作用,其他起辅助作用。

  解决方法:遇到多个谓语动词连用情况要分清主句谓语动词和从句的谓语动词。剔除细枝末节之后,句子也就好理解了。例如:

  Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery, but being able to tell if the cause is a cold or flu(流感) may make a difference in how long the misery lasts. (2005.1)

  解析:此句是由but引导的并列句。前面一句话容易理解,谓语动词是spell,关键看后一句话。but引导的句子黑体下划线是主语,该句子真正谓语动词是may make,如下面所示:

  but being able to tell if the cause is a cold or flu(流感) may make a difference in how long the misery lasts.

  翻译:喉咙发痒、鼻塞、浑身酸痛都令人痛苦,但是能够确定造成这种痛苦的根源是普通感冒还是流感,对这种痛苦能折磨你多就会起关键作用。

  4、举例作为插入语(显著词such as; for example; including etc.)

  插入语主要起补充或说明的作用,我们在进行快速阅读的时候通常会把它省略,即忽略不看。但是,笔者在这里要提出的一点是,如果根据文章问题回原文定位句子时,如果定位的关键句子包含了以上插入语中的任何一种形式,则答案往往就在此处。例如:

  原文:Finally, other people may give us instrumental support—financial aid, material resources, and needed services—that reduces stress by helping us resolve and cope with our problems.

  考题: Helping a sick neighbor with some repair work is an example of

  A. instrumental support B. informational support

  C. social companionship D. the strengthening of self-respect

  (1)Cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose and scratchy throat typically develop gradually, and adults and teens often do not get a fever. (2005.1)

  翻译:普通感冒患者的一些典型症状,如鼻塞、流鼻涕、喉咙发痒,发作比较缓慢,成人和青少年患者一般不会有发热症状。

  (2)And in general, flu symptoms including fever and chills, sore throat and body aches come on suddenly and are more severe than cold symptoms. (2005.1)

  翻译:一般来说,流感症状包括发烧、发冷、喉咙发痒、浑身疼痛,比普通感冒的症状来得突然和猛烈。

  ☆注意:举例有时可以换成短语,如介词短语、不定式短语等等;还可以换成有两个破折号引起的插入语成分。例如:

  It is 37 years later. Stokoe—now devoting his time to writing and editing books and jounals and to producing video materials on ASL and deaf culture—is having lunch at a café near the Gallaudet campus and explaining how he started a revolution.(2004.6)

  时间过了37年。现在Stoloe致力于撰写和编辑关于美国手语和聋哑人文化的书籍和杂志,以及制作相关的录像材料

  5、并列句连用使得句子变长(主谓宾都可以并列)

  并列句是四级阅读理解中的主要句式。出题人会把几个成分相同的并列句子,通过剔除多余成分从而使其合并为一个很长的句子

  解决方法:破解这样句子的关键是要弄清楚两个句子的逻辑关系,补全成分后重新还原为几个单独的句子即可。例如:

  To make matters worse for the government, it soon emerged that the Princess’s trip had been approved by the Foreign Office, and that she was in fact very well-informed about both the situation in Angola and the British government’s policy regarding landmines. (2004.6)

  翻译:对政府来说,更糟糕的是,不久得知的消息是,王妃的安哥拉之行得到过外事办的批准,并且她事实上非常了解安哥拉的形势和英国政府关于地雷的政策。

  相当于拆分成三个句子:

  (1) To make matters worse for the government

  (2) It soon emerged that the Princess’s trip had been approved by the Foreign Office.

  (3) It soon emerged that she was in fact very well-informed about both the situation in Angola and the British government’s policy regarding landmines.

  6、多重复合句叠加

  所谓多重复合句叠加,就是说一个长句子当中可能包含了好几种句式(并列的定语从句、状语从句、介词短语等等)。

  解决方法:分清主从句,理清句子逻辑关系至关重要。通常采用图表法。例如:

  (1)Then there is the general, all covering apology, which avoids the necessity of identifying a specific act that was particularly hurtful or insulting, and which the person who is apologizing should promise never to do again. (2006.1)

  结构图:

  ①——☆①

  ○——○——

  ②——☆②

  说明:

  ○——○=then there is the general, all covering apology

  ①=which avoids the necessity of identifying a specific act

  ②= and which the person should promise never to do again

  ☆①= that was particularly hurtful or insulting

  ☆②= Who is apologizing

  显然,原句子是由有there be引导做主句,后面跟了两个which 引导的定语从句,两者是并列的。比较特殊的是which定语从句中有各自有一个定语从句,像是一个连环套。

  分解为以下几个句子:

  1.Then there is the general, all covering apology

  2.Which avoids the necessity of identifying a specific act

  3.That was particularly hurtful or insulting

  4.And which the person

  5.Who is apologizing

  6.Should promise never to do again

  翻译:

  1.然后就有了一种一般意义的、无所不包的道歉

  2.这种道歉避免了一种指明特别行为的必要性

  3.特别是让人伤心或者令人委屈的行为

  4.这种道歉使得人们

  5.道歉的人们

  6.承诺以后不再犯类似的行为

  句子整合翻译:然后还有一种泛泛的无所不包的道歉,这种道歉避免了一种指明特别让人伤心、特别令人委屈的、道歉者应该保证以后不会再犯的具体行为。

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