全新版大学英语综合教程第二版第四册第四课课文翻译

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  在大学学习英语的时候,对于全新版大学英语综合教程的内容你了如指掌吗?第四册第四课课文应该怎么翻译呢?下面就让小编来告诉你答案。

  全新版大学英语综合教程第二版第四册第四课课文翻译1

  Globalization is sweeping aside national borders and changing relations between nations. What impact does this have on national identities and loyalties? Are they strengthened or weakened? The author investigates.

  全球化正在扫除国界、改变国与国之间的关系。这对国家的认同和对国家的忠诚会带来什么影响呢?它们会得到加强还是削弱?作者对这些问题进行了探讨。

  In Search of Davos ManPeter Gumbel

  1. William Browder was born in Princeton, New Jersey, grew up in Chicago, and studied at Stanford University in California. But don't call him an American. For the past 16 of his 40 years he has lived outside the U.S., first in London and then, from 1996, in Moscow, where he runs his own investment firm. Browder now manages $1.6 billion in assets. In 1998 he gave up his American passport to become a British citizen, since his life is now centered in Europe. "National identity makes no difference for me," he says. "I feel completely international. If you have four good friends and you like what you are doing, it doesn't matter where you are. That's globalization."

  寻找达沃斯人

  彼得·甘贝尔

  威廉·布劳德出生于新泽西州的普林斯顿,在芝加哥长大,就读于加利福尼亚州的斯坦福大学。但别叫他美国人。他今年40岁,过去16年来一直生活在美国以外的地方,先是在伦敦,1996年后在莫斯科经营他自己的投资公司。布劳德如今掌管着价值16亿美元的资产。1998年,他放弃美国护照,成为英国公民,因为他现在的生活中心在欧洲。“国家认同对我来说不重要,”他说,“我觉得自己完全是个国际人。如果你有四个朋友,又喜欢你所做的事情,那么你在哪儿无关紧要。这就是全球化。”

  2. Alex Mandl is also a fervent believer in globalization, but he views himself very differently. A former president of AT&T, Mandl, 61, was born in Austria and now runs a French technology company, which is doing more and more business in China. He reckons he spends about 90% of his time traveling on business. But despite all that globetrotting, Mandl who has been a U.S. citizen for 45 years still identifies himself as an American. "I see myself as American without any hesitation. The fact that I spend a lot of time in other places doesn't change that," he says.

  亚历克斯·曼德尔也是全球化的狂热信徒,但他对自己的看法与布劳德不同。61岁的曼德尔曾任美国电报电话公司总裁。他出生于奥地利,现在经营着一家法国技术公司,该公司在中国的业务与日俱增。他估计自己几乎90%的时间都花在出差上。然而,尽管曼德尔全球到处跑,已经做了45年美国公民的他还是认为自己是个美国人。“我毫不迟疑地把自己当作美国人。我在其他地方度过很多时间,但是这一事实不能改变我是美国人,”他说。

  3. Although Browder and Mandl define their nationality differently, both see their identity as a matter of personal choice, not an accident of birth. And not incidentally, both are Davos Men, members of the international business élite who trek each year to the Swiss Alpine town for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum, founded in 1971. This week, Browder and Mandl will join more than 2,200 executives, politicians, academics, journalists, writers and a handful of Hollywood stars for five days of networking, parties and endless earnest discussions about everything from post-election Iraq and HIV in Africa to the global supply of oil and the implications of nanotechnology. Yet this year, perhaps more than ever, a hot topic at Davos is Davos itself. Whatever their considerable differences, most Davos Men and Women share at least one belief: that globalization, the unimpeded flows of capital, labor and technology across national borders, is both welcome and unstoppable. They see the world increasingly as one vast, interconnected marketplace in which corporations search for the most advantageous locations to buy, produce and sell their goods and services.

  虽然布劳德和曼德尔对各自的国籍界定不同,他们都将国籍视为个人选择,而不是由出生地决定的。而且,他俩都是达沃斯人,这可不是巧合。达沃斯人指的是那些每年长途跋涉去瑞士阿尔卑斯山区小城达沃斯参加年度世界经济论坛——该论坛始于1971年——的国际商业精英们。本周,布劳德和曼德尔将同其他2200余名企业高管、政界人士、学者、记者、作家和少数几位好莱坞明星一起,参加为时五天的交际活动、宴会和没完没了的认真的讨论。讨论话题林林总总,从大选后的伊拉克和非洲的艾滋病病毒到全球的石油供应和纳米技术的重大意义。然而今年,或许比以往更甚的是,达沃斯论坛的一个热门话题就是达沃斯本身。尽管与会男女各不相同,但他们大多数有一个共同信念:全球化,亦即资本、劳动力和技术不受阻碍地跨国界流动,是值得欢迎和不可阻挡的。在他们看来,世界越来越像一个巨大的互相联系的市场。在这个市场里,企业寻求采购、生产及销售产品和服务的最佳地点。

  全新版大学英语综合教程第二版第四册第四课课文翻译2

  4. As borders and national identities become less important, some find that threatening and even dangerous. In an essay entitled "Dead Souls: The Denationalization of the American Elite," Harvard Professor Samuel Huntington describes Davos Man (a phrase that first got widespread attention in the 1990s) as an emerging global superspecies and a threat. The members of this class, he writes, are people who "have little need for national loyalty, view national boundaries as obstacles that thankfully are vanishing, and see national governments as residues from the past whose only useful function is to facilitate the élite's global operations." Huntington argues that Davos Man's global-citizen self-image is starkly at odds with the values of most Americans, who remain deeplycommitted to their nation. This disconnect, he says, creates "a major cultural fault line. In a variety of ways, the American establishment, governmental and private, has become increasingly divorced from the American people."

  随着边界和对国家的认同变得越来越不重要,有些人将此视作威胁,甚至危险。哈佛大学教授塞缪尔·亨廷顿在一篇题为《死魂灵:美国精英的去国家化》的论文中将达沃斯人(该说法最早在20世纪90年代引起广泛注意)描写成为一个新兴的全球超级物种和威胁。他写道,该阶层的成员“不要什么对国家的忠诚,视国界为障碍,而万幸的是这种障碍正在消失,他们还把国家的政府看作是历史遗留下来的东西,它们唯一的用处就是为精英们的全球运营提供方便。”亨廷顿提出,达沃斯人以全球公民自居的自我形象,与大多数美国人的价值观完全相悖。后者依然坚定地忠于他们自己的国家。他说,这种脱节造成了“一个重大的文化断层。在种种意义上,美国政府和私营企业的当权派们与美国大众渐行渐远。”

  R T 5. Naturally, many Davos Men don't accept Huntington's terms. Klaus Schwab, the founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum, argues that endorsing a global outlook does not mean erasing national identity. "Globalization can never provide us with cultural identity, which needs to be local and national in nature."

  许多达沃斯人自然不同意亨廷顿的说法。世界经济论坛的创始人兼执行主席克劳斯·施瓦布争辩说,支持全球观并不意味着抹去对国家的认同。“全球化决无可能给予我们文化认同,因为后者在本质上必须是本土的、民族的。”

  6. Global trade has been around for centuries; the corporations and countries that benefited from it were largely content to treat vast parts of the world as places to mine natural resources or sell finished products. Even as the globalization of capital accelerated in the 1980s, most foreign investment was between relatively wealthy countries, not from wealthy countries into poorer ones. U.S. technology, companies and money were often at the forefront of this movement.

  全球贸易已经持续了几个世纪;过去从中获益的企业和国家在很大程度上满足于将世界上的广大地区视为自然资源的开采地或成品的销售地。即便到了20世纪80年代,资本全球化已经加速,大多数外国投资仍在相对富裕的国家之间进行,而不是从富裕国家流向较贫穷国家。美国的技术、企业和资金通常处于这一流动的前沿。

  7. However the past two decades have witnessed the rise of other significant players. The developed world is beating a path to China's and India's door — and Chinese and Indian companies, in turn, have started to look overseas for some of their future growth. Beijing has even started what it calls a "Going Out" policy that encourages Chinese firms to buy assets overseas. Asian nations are creating "a remarkable environment of innovation," says John Chambers, chief executive of Cisco Systems. "China and India are graduating currently more than five times the number of engineers that we are here in the U.S." That means that U.S. and European companies are now facing high-quality, low-cost competition from overseas. No wonder so many Western workers worry about losing their jobs. " If the issue is the size of the total pie, globalization has proved a good thing," says Orit Gadiesh, chairman of consultants Bain & Co. "If the issue is how the pie is divided, if you're in the Western world you could question that."

  然而,在过去二十年间,另外一些重大参与者出现了。发达国家正在开辟一条通向中国和印度大门的道路——而中国和印度的公司又将眼光投向海外,寻找未来增长的机会。北京甚至提出了“走出去”的政策,鼓励中国企业购买海外资产。亚洲各国正在形成“一个创新的卓越环境,”思科系统公司的首席执行官约翰·钱伯斯如是说。“目前中国和印度的工科大学毕业生是我们美国的五倍还多。”这就意味着美国和欧洲的公司现在面临来自海外的高质量、低成本的竞争。毋怪乎这么多西方工人担心失业。“如果问题涉及的是整个蛋糕的大小,那全球化已经被证明是件好事。”贝恩管理咨询公司的董事长奥里特·加迪西说,“如果问题在于蛋糕怎么分,而你又是西方人,那你就会质疑全球化。”

  全新版大学英语综合教程第二版第四册第四课课文翻译3

  8. The biggest shift may just be starting. A landmark 2003 study by Goldman Sachs predicted that four economies — Russia, Brazil, India and China — will become a much larger force in the world economy than widely expected, based on projections of demographic and economic growth, with China potentially overtaking Germany this decade. By 2050, Goldman Sachs suggested, these four newcomers will likely have displaced all but the U.S. and Japan from the top six economies in the world.

  最大的变化也许刚刚开始。高盛集团2003年做的一项意义深远的研究预测说,根据对各国人口和经济增长的预计,四大经济体——俄罗斯、巴西、印度和中国——在世界经济中的力量将超过普遍预期。中国的经济实力可能就在这个十年内赶超德国。高盛集团说,到2050年,这四大新经济体将有可能取代目前世界六个最大经济体中除了美国和日本之外的四个经济体。

  9. It's also entirely possible that the near future may see the pendulum of capital swing away from Davos Man-style globalization. One counterpoint is Manila Woman — low-paid migrant workers from Asia and elsewhere who are increasingly providing key services around the world. Valerie Gooding, the chief executive of British health care company BUPA, says the British and U.S. health care system would break down without immigrant nurses from the Philippines, India, Nigeria and elsewhere. Unlike Davos Man, she says, they're not ambivalent about being strongly patriotic.

  近期资本流动也完全有可能脱离达沃斯人式的全球化的轨迹。与达沃斯人相对的是马尼拉女人。这些来自亚洲和其他地方的低薪流动劳工正在全球提供越来越多的关键服务。英国一家医疗保健公司保柏集团的首席执行官瓦莱丽·戈丁说,要是没有来自菲律宾、印度、尼日利亚和其他地方的移民护士,英美两国的医疗保健体系就会崩溃。她说,这些人跟达沃斯人不一样,他们毫不掩饰自己的强烈爱国情绪。

  10. Not all Davos Men seek global markets, either. Patrick Sayer runs a private equity firm in France called Eurazeo, and complains there are still too many barriers to cross-border business in Europe, let alone the world. So he's focused Eurazeo on its domestic market. "I profit from being French in France. It's easier for me to do deals," Sayer says."It's the same elsewhere. If you're not Italian in Italy, you won't succeed."

  也不是所有达沃斯人都在追逐全球市场。帕特里克· 塞尔在法国经营一家名为尤拉吉奥投资集团的私募股权公司。他抱怨说,欧洲跨国界经营中还有太多障碍,更别提全球经营了。所以他的尤拉吉奥投资集团专注于国内市场。“我是法国人,在法国做生意,对我而言要方便得多。”塞尔说。“别处也一样。如果你不是意大利人,而在意大利做生意,你没办法成功。”

  11. That may sound like a narrow nationalism, yet it contains a hidden wisdom. Recall that Italy itself was, until 1861, not a unified nation but an aggregation of city-states. Despite tension between its north and south, there's no contradiction between maintaining a regional identity and a national one. Marco Tronchetti Provera, chairman of Telecom Italia, for example, can feel both Milanese and Italian at once, even as he runs a company that is aspiring to become a bigger international presence. The question is whether it will take another 140 years for Davos Man to figure out how to strike the same balance on a global scale.

  这听上去也许像狭隘民族主义,但内中确大有学问。回想一下,在1861年前,意大利还不是一个统一的国家,而是由城邦组成的结合体。尽管意大利南北方之间关系紧张,保持地区认同和国家认同之间并无矛盾。例如,意大利电信公司的董事长马尔科·特隆切蒂·普罗维拉觉得自己是个米兰人,同时又是个意大利人,尽管他经营的公司正力图获得更大的国际影响力。问题是,达沃斯人是否需要再花上140年,才能搞明白如何在全球规模上取得同样的平衡。


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