本文为上海外语教育出版社出版《新世纪大学英语综合教程1》第一册课后答案和课后翻译(秦秀白 著)课后习题答案 ，提供给同学们学习参考
T A Language Teacher's Personal Opinion
Will Pidcroft This text is taken from Incentive Themes by W. S. Fowler, J. Pidcook & L. R. Rycroft. Nelson. Australia. 1980.
close1RT Every day I see advertisements in the newspapers and on the buses claiming that it is easy to learn English. According to these advertisements, with very little effort on the student's part, he will be able to speak the language fluently in three months or even ten days. There is often a reference to William Shakespeare or Charles Dickens to encourage him even more. When I see advertisements like this, I don't know whether to laugh or cry. If it were as easy to learn English as they say, I would have to look for another job, because very few qualified teachers would be needed. But a large number of people must believe these ridiculous claims, or else the advertisements would not appear.
It is natural for students to be attracted to methods that will teach them as quickly and efficiently and cheaply as possible. But it is difficult for anyone to explain in simple language why one method is better than another, and it is no use pretending that anyone has discovered a perfect way of teaching English in every possible situation. Some experts even argue that there are as many good methods of teaching a language as there are good teachers, because every teacher is an individual with his own personality. No doubt this is true to a certain extent, but it is not very helpful to students.
For a long time people believed that the only way to learn a language was to spend a great deal of time in a country where it was spoken. Of course it is clear that students who go to England, America, or Australia to learn English have a great advantage over others, but a large number of students cannot afford to do so. Some students go to the opposite extreme and think they can teach themselves at home with dictionaries. But it is wrong to assume that each word in English has a precise equivalent in another language and vice versa, and it is impossible for any translation method to provide students with the natural forms of a language in speech, let alone produce good pronunciation and intonation.
有很长一段时间，人们认为要学好一门语言，只有去使用那种语言的国家待上一段时间。当然去英国、美国、或者澳大利亚等国家学英语的学生肯定比那些不能去的学生具有很大优势，但是很多学生支付不起那笔费用。有些学生走向另一极端：他们认为可以借助词典在家自学。如果你认为英语中的每一个词在另一语言中都有完全对等的词（或反之亦然），那就错了。通过翻译法来给学生讲解口语的自然形式是不可能的，更不要说做到语音、语调地道了。close4RT A great deal of teaching is still based on behaviorist psychology. Behaviorists are fond of making students repeat phrases and making them do exercises where they continually have to change one word in a sentence. If we were parrots or chimpanzees, these methods might be successful. A large number of theorists seem to think it is a pity we aren't, because it would make it easier to use their methods.
现在大量的教学活动还是建立在行为主义心理学的基础之上。行为主义者热衷于让学生复述短语，不断做一些只需更换句中某个词的练习。假如我们是鹦鹉或黑猩猩，那这些方法或许能奏效，可惜我们不是，这似乎让很多理论家引以为憾，否则他们提出的那些方法用起来就会容易得多了。close5RT In my personal opinion, no one can ever learn to speak English or any other language unless he is interested in it. Human beings, unlike parrots and chimpanzees, do not like making noises unless they understand what the noises mean and can relate them to their own lives. It is worth remembering that language is a means of communication. What people want to say and write in another language is probably very similar to what they want to say and write in their own. What they listen to and read cannot be a formula. It must be real.
我个人认为，假如没有兴趣，任何人都不可能学好英语或其他任何语言。与鹦鹉或黑猩猩不同，人类不会无缘无故地发出噪音，除非他们明白这些声音是什么意思，并且能将其与自己的生活联系起来。值得牢记的是：语言是一种交际手段，人们在母语中怎么说怎么写，用另一种语言表达时也大同小异。因此，人们所听所读的不应该是程式化的东西，听的读的材料必须真实自然。close6RT There is another relevant point worth mentioning here. We need other people to talk to and listen to when we communicate. If what we are learning is strange to us, it will be helpful if there are other students around us who can work with us and practise the unfamiliar forms with us in real situations, talking to each other about real life in real language.
Learning to Read
John Holt This text is adapted from The Norton Reader (11th Edition) by W. W. Norton, L. H. Peterson & J. C. Brereton. New York & London. 2004.
close1RT In one of my classes were many children who had had great trouble with schoolwork, particularly reading. I decided to try at all costs to rid them of their fear and dislike of books, and to get them to read oftener and more adventurously (冒险地).
在我曾经任教的一个班上有许多孩子学习起来非常吃力，尤其是阅读。因此我决定不惜任何代价消除他们对书籍的恐惧和厌恶心理，让他们能够多读些书，更勇于尝试。close2RT One day soon after school had started, I said to them, "Now I'm going to say something about reading that you have probably never heard a teacher say before. I would like you to read a lot of books this year, but I want you to read them only for pleasure. I am not going to ask you questions to find out whether you understand the books or not. If you understand enough of a book to enjoy it and want to go on reading it, that's enough for me. Also I'm not going to ask you what words mean."
开学没多久，我对孩子们说："我要跟你们说说读书的事，也许还没有哪个老师这样对你们讲过。今年我想要你们读许多书，你们只需要为寻求乐趣而读书，我不会去检查你们读懂了没有。如果你读了一点儿，觉得会喜欢这本书，并愿意把它读完，这就够了。我不会去考你们词语的意思。"close3RT "Finally," I said, "I don't want you to feel that just because you start a book, you have to finish it. Give an author thirty or forty pages or so to get his story going. Then if you don't like the characters and don't care what happens to them, close the book, put it away, and get another. I don't care whether the books are easy or hard, short or long, as long as you enjoy them. Furthermore, I'm putting all this in a letter to your parents, so they won't feel they have to quiz or check your reading at home."
"最后，"我继续说道，"你们不要觉得读一本书就得把它读完。先读三四十页，看看故事情节如何发展。如果你不喜欢书中人物，或者对他们的经历不感兴趣，只管合上书，放到一边，去读另一本。你们读的书是难还是容易、篇幅长还是篇幅短，我都不在意，只要你们喜欢就行。另外，我会写信把我的意思告诉你们的家长，好让他们知道没有必要在家里查问或检查你们的读书情况。"close4RT The children sat stunned (使震惊) and silent. Was this a teacher talking? One girl, who had just come to us from a school where she had had a very hard time, and who proved to be one of the most interesting, lively, and intelligent children I have ever known, looked at me steadily for a long time after I had finished. Then, still looking at me, she said slowly and solemnly, "Mr. Holt, do you really mean that?" I said just as solemnly, "I mean every word of it."
孩子们都愣住了，坐着不出声。这真的是老师在说话吗？其中一个女孩，因为功课不好最近才转学到我们学校来，后来我发现她非常有趣、活泼、聪明，在我所有的学生中都算突出的。我讲完后，她盯住我看了很久。然后，她继续看着我，缓慢而严肃地问："霍尔特先生，你说的话是真的吗？"我也同样严肃地回答："真的，一点不假。"close5RT Apparently she decided to believe me. The first book she read was Dr. Seuss's How the Grinch Stole Christmas, not a hard book even for most third graders. For a while she read a number of books on this level. Perhaps she was clearing up some confusion about reading that her teachers, in their hurry to get her up to "grade level," had never given her enough time to clear up. After she had been in the class six weeks or so and we had become good friends, I very tentatively (试探性地) suggested that, since she was a skillful rider and loved horses, she might like to read National Velvet. I made my sell as soft as possible, saying only that it was about a girl who loved and rode horses, and that if she didn't like it, she could put it back. She tried it, and though she must have found it quite a bit harder than what she had been reading, finished it and liked it very much.
显然，她打算照我说的办。她读的第一本书是索伊斯博士写的《格林奇偷走圣诞节》，这本书对大多数三年级的学生都不算难，更不要说这个年级的孩子了。有一阵子，她读的书都在这个难易度上。也许她是在消除对阅读的一些困惑，而以前她没时间去做，因为老师总是催促她看这个年级"该看的书"。她在这个班上学习了六七个星期后，我们成了好朋友。我试探地向她建议：既然她喜欢马，而且骑马的水平还不错，她可以读一读《侠女神驹》。我尽可能委婉地提出这个建议。我只告诉她那是一本关于一个热爱马并常常骑马的女孩的故事；如果她不喜欢读，她可以放回书架。她去读了，也许她觉得这本书比她先前读的书要难点，但是她读完了，而且挺喜欢。close6RT During the spring semester, she really astonished me, however. One day, in one of our many free periods, she was reading at her desk. From a glimpse of the illustrations I thought I knew what the book was. I said to myself, "It can't be," and went to take a closer look. Sure enough, she was reading Moby Dick, in the edition with woodcuts (木刻) by Rockwell Kent. When I came close to her desk, she looked up. I said, "Are you really reading that?" She said she was. I said, "Do you like it?" She said, "Oh, yes, it's neat!" I said, "Don't you find parts of it rather heavy going?" She answered, "Oh, sure, but I just skip (略过，跳过) over those parts and go on to the next good part."
春季的那一学期，她的表现可真的让我吃惊了。一天，在我们的自习课上我看到她坐在课桌前看书。我瞥了一眼书中的插图我就知道这是一本什么书了。但是我不相信我的眼睛："不可能吧。"我走过去仔细一看，果然她在读《白鲸》，那版本配有罗克威尔·肯特的木刻画。我走近她的时候，她抬起头来。我问她："你真的在看这本书吗？"她说，是的。我又问："你喜欢这本书吗？""嗯，是的。这本书很好。"她答道。"你不觉得有些地方很难吗？"我又问道。"有啊，不过，看不懂就跳过去，挑有意思的地方看。"她这样回答。close7RT This is exactly what reading should be, but in school, reading is not always an exciting, joyous (充满欢乐的) adventure. Find something, dive into it, take the good parts, skip the bad parts, get what you can out of it, go on to something else. Why should we insist that every child should read the same book and get the same scrap(碎屑)of "understanding" out of it?