高考英语细节理解题的解题思路及技巧

时间:2021-02-04 16:37:47 高考英语 我要投稿

高考英语细节理解题的解题思路及技巧

  在近年高考阅读理解试题中,细节题占有很大的比例。一般来说,此类题目属直接解答性问题,是阅读理解题中最简单的一种,多数属于中低难度的送分题。但由于所占的比例很大,应特别引起我们的注意。本文将以备考中出现的有典型意义的实例来总结此类题目的特点、解题思路及技巧。

高考英语细节理解题的解题思路及技巧

  一、考查的要点及命题的特点和形式

  高考细节理解题主要考查考生对文章(或某一段落)中某一些特定细节或文章的重要事实的理解能力,一般包括直接理解题(在原文中可直接找到答案)及语义转化题(需要将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语义上的'转换,两者存在表达上的差异,有时需要进行加工或整理后方能得出结论。)此类题目的出题形式很多。例如:

  Which of the following statements is true/ false? Which of the following is mentioned/not mentioned?

  The writer states... The author mentions that...

  What time does the writer think is...? How many/How much/Where/How/Why...?

  二、解题思路及处理技巧

  对此类题型,考生可以首先从问题中找到关键词,然后以此为线索,运用略读及查阅的技巧在文中迅速寻找这一细节,找到后再把这一部分内容仔细阅读一遍,仔细比较所给选项与文中细节一点一滴的区别,在准确理解细节的前提下,最后确定最佳答案。

  要快速地辨认和记忆事实或细节,就需要恰当地使用查阅的方法及技巧。查阅是读者对材料有所熟悉的情况下进行的,它的特点是带着问题去寻找答案,它往往与略读综合使用,其具体方法与步骤如下:

  ① 略读材料,大概了解原文,掌握其中心或主旨。

  ② 按文章的体裁,作者写作的组织模式及有关的信息词,如for example,first,second...等预测应该到何处寻找自己所需要的事实。

  ③ 将自己精力放在寻找你所需要的细节上,快速通篇跳读,眼睛自左至右,自上而下呈Z形扫视,直到找到细节出处,待找到含细节句子时,就要放慢速度,仔细核对比较内容,直至找到答案。

  三、细节理解的主要特点及典型失误 细节理解题往往有如下一些特点:

  1对应性:此类题的正确答案应与文中的细节一一对应,而不能是在未经查阅找到细节点的出处时,就冒然依照自己的理解答题,也不能在细节对应还模糊不清的时候,就一锤定音。例如:

  The World Trade Center was hit by two planes and it fell in a short time later on September 11th.

  Here is some hijacking(劫持)information.

  American and United airlines both said two of their planes had been hijacked and crashed(坠毁).

  American said its planes were carrying a total of 156people.One was a Boston-Los Angeles flight.An FBI man said the former,a Boeing 767,hit one of the Trade Center towers;the latter,a Boeing 757,hit the Pentagon.

  Two United airliners with a total of 110 aboard also crashed—a Boeing 757outside Pittsburgh,the other,a Boeing 767,into the Trade Center.

  Question: What kind of planes hit the World Trade Center?

  A.A Boeing 757and a Boeing 767. B.Two planes both Boeing 757.

  C.Two planes both Boeing 767. D.Two planes from New York.

  解析:许多学生看了第4段就开始做题了,他们在Pentagon(五角大楼)意义不清时(即细节对应尚还模糊的时候)就判定此段中一架Boeing767及一架Boeing 757为撞击大楼的飞机,从而选择了A项。而依据下一段中的“the other,a Boeing 767,into the Trade Centre.”不难看出答案应为C。

  2准确性:准确性是细节理解题的核心要求。最近几年高考试题中此类题更多地倾向于将题目中的信息与原文有关细节信息进行语义

  高中英语语法-高中英语语法重点难点回顾之三

  高中英语语法重点难点回顾之三

  little,no,some, 等修饰。

  I have read all the book (that) you gave me.

  3.先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时。

  He is the only person that I want to talk to.

  4.先行词既有人又有物时。They talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school.

  先行词是表示地点时,要根据从句的谓语动词是及物的还是不及物的。如果是及物的就用that(which),否则用where。

  This is the house where he lived last year.

  This is the house that (which) he visited last year.

  用no sooner…than和hardly…when引导的从句表示“刚……就……”。主句中的动词一般用过去完成时,从句用过去时;而且主句一般倒装,把助动词had提到前面。例如:Hardly had I entered the room when I heard a loud noise.

  代词作主语时,主谓语序不变。Here it is. Here he comes.

  当句首状语为表示地点的介词词组时也常常引起全部倒装。

  South of the city lies a big steel factory.

  From the valley came a frightening sound.

  表语置于句首时,倒装结构为“表语+连系动词+主语”。

  Present at the meeting were Professor White,Professor Smith and many other guests.

  Gone are the days when they could do what they liked to the Chinese people.

  Among the goods are Christmas trees, flowers, candles and toys.

  He has been to Beijing. So have I.

  Li Wei can’t answer the question. Neither can I.

  部分倒装

  用于省略if的虚拟条件状语从句。Had you reviewed your lessons,you might have passed the examination.

  5.用于“形容词(或名词、动词)+as(though)引导的让步状语从句中。例如:Pretty as she is ,she is not clever.

  Try as he would, he might fail again.

  如果从句的表语是名词,其名词前不加任何冠词。

  Child as he was, he had to make a living.

  用于no sooner…than…,hardly…when和not until的句型中。Not until the teacher came did he finish his homework.

  用于never,hardly,seldom,scarcely, barely, little,often,at no time,not only,not once等词开头的句子。

  Never shall I do this again.

  Little did he know who the woman was.

  4.用于以only开头的句子(only修饰副词,介词短语或状语从句时)。Only this afternoon did I finish the novel.

  Only in this way can you master English.

  Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he was in.

  如果only后面的词组不是状语,则不用倒装。

  Only Wang Ling knows this.

  用于某些表示祝愿的句子。May you succeed!祝你成功!

  stomach-stomachs,a German-three Germans,

  an American-two Americans,man cook - men cooks;

  papers 报纸, 文件 manners礼貌 drinks饮料

  in a word 简言之?in other words 换句话说

  have words with 与某人吵嘴

  have a few words (a word) with sb.与某人说几句话

  The crowd were running for their lives.

  某些集体名词, 如people, police, cattle等, 只当复数看待, 谓语动词必须用复数。The police are searching for him.

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