Type 1 引述他人观点(为提出自己的观点铺垫)
1. It is widely (commonly) accepted (hold)+THAT...
2. A widely accepted(commonly) hold idea (point of view, viewpoint, opinion, assumption)is that...
3. A/ The dominant (prevalent, prevailing) idea is that...
4. It is taken for granted +THAT(or: We often/ frequently take it for granted that...)
5. People(The majority) seem to get accustomed to the idea that...
6. People are willing to regard...as...
7. People are willing to do..., while reluctant to do...
Type 2 提出异议
1. However (But)，...
2. Such idea..., if not entirely ADJ1，is somewhat ADJ2 and needs careful consideration.
ADJI=unreasonable, unacceptable, inappropriate, improper, undesirable, etc;
ADJ2=misleading, doubtful, etc.
3. In fact (As a matter of fact)，...
4. However, it is not (quite, necessarily) the case.
5. This (It) is not (quite, necessarily) the case and needs to be further considered/discussed. (or: further consideration/discussion)
Type 3 论述的展开：说明原因和理由，层进，举例，转折
1. The reason lies in several aspects，...
2. The reason why +clause+...
3. There are several remarkable reasons.
4.层进in addition, besides, furthermore, what's more, on the other hand, meanwhile, for one thing...for another; finally, above all, in short.
5.举例for example, for instance, such (general term) as (specific terms)，a typical (striking) example is that, a case in point.
6.转折however, but, nevertheless, on the contrary.
7.条件if , provided that, unless, as long as, etc.
Type 4 就……而言;关于
1. as far as...is/are concerned: As far as current situation is concerned...
2. as to: the problem as to NP有关……的问题
Type 5 问题
1. Although much effort has been made, the situation is far from satisfactory (or: the problem remains unsolved, little improvement has been achieved).
2. There is a tendency, as recent study (investigation) has pointed out (shown, revealed, indicated)+THAT...
3. There is a growing concern about...
4. It will inevitably (is likely to )result in (lead to ) unwanted (serious) consequence...
5. Unfortunately, ...
6. We will not be able to afford the risk of overlooking the seriousness of the matter.
7. The process, once initiated, is most likely irreversible.
8. We are constantly (frequently) faced with...
Type 6 重要与必要;(应)注意与重视
1. NP1 is of great importance (necessity, value) in NP2 (or: NP is of enormous significance)
2. The importance (necessity) of... (to do sth.) lies in (the fact) that...
3. NP1 plays, as is known, an irreplaceably important role in NP2
4. The irreplaceably important role NP1 plays in NP2 is significant (obvious)
5. NP1 is an indispensable part of NP2
6. It is important (necessary) to DO (or: THAT)
7. Special attention should be payed to...(or: We should pay special attention to...)
8. What we should take into consideration is +NP
Type 7 行动
1. (immediate, emergent, effective) Measures are being taken (has been taken, should be taken) to DO
2. We have made much effort, there is still more we need to make (or: We have learnt a lot, there is much more we need to learn.)
Type 8 二择其一
1. If it were left for me to decide whether (why + clause)，I would, without hesitation, choose to DO (or: I would prefer the former/the latter)
2. To DO/NP is a matter of preference.
3. It is difficult to make a choice for one can hardly gain most without losing any.
4. The difficulty lies in the fact that the advantages and disadvantages of both cases are equally obvious.
5. In fact, we may well preserve a delicate balance or compromise between the two than go to extreme.
6. It is not sensible to exclude one of the choices completely.
7. (of two conflicting ideas, concepts) Though conflicting to one another, they are so closely associated that understanding one will be impossible without discussing the other.
8. The benefits of NP are varied...
9. While disadvantages are unavoidable, it is the advantages that prevail.