文章一开头，就交待清楚文章的主题是什么。如"How I Spent My Vacation”《我怎样度假》的开头是：
I Spent my last vacation happily.
Honesty is one of the best virtues.An honest man is always trusted and respected.On the contrary, one who tells lies is regarded as a "liar"，and is looked upon by honest people.
在文章的开头，先把人物、事件和环境交待清楚。例如"A Trip to Jinshan" 《去金山旅游》的开头：
The day before yesterday my class went on a bus trip to Jinshan. The bus ride there took three hours. The long trip made us very tired, but the sight of the beautiful sea refreshed us.
用回忆的方法来开头。例如"A Trip to the Taishan Mountain"《泰山游》的开头是：
I remember my first trip to the Taishan Mountain as if it were yesterday.
即对要在文章中叙述的人或事先作一个概括性的介绍。如"he Happiness ofReading Books”《读书的快乐》的开头：
People often say that gold and silver are the most valuable things in the world. But I say that to read books is more valuable than anything else, because books give us knowledge and knowledge gives us power.
It was a rainy and windy morning. The sky was gloomy, the temperature was low, and the street was nearly empty. I was on my way back to school. Suddenly, a speeding car came round the corner.
在文章的一开头就交待写作目的，如通过文章要表扬谁，批评谁，或说明一个什么问题等。如 "Pollution Control" 《控制污染》的开头：
In this article I shall draw your attention to the subject of pollution control.
在文章的结尾，把含义较深的话放在末尾，以点明主题，深化主题，起到画龙点睛的效果。如"I Cannot Forget Her" 《我忘不了她》的结尾：
After her death, I felt as if something were missing in my life. I was sad over her passing away, but I knew she would not have had any regrets at having given her life for the benefit of the people.
结尾回到文章开头阐明的中心思想或主题句上，达到强调的效果。如" Love MyHome Town”《我爱家乡》的结尾：
I love my home town, and I love its people. They too have changed. They are going all out to do more for the good of our motherland.
I caught as many as twenty fish in two hours, but my brother caught many more. Tired from fishing, we lay down on the river bank, bathing in the sun. We returned home very late.
用比喻或含蓄的手法不直接点明作者的看法，而是让读者自己去领会和思考。如“A Day of Harvesting”(收割的日子)的结尾：
Evening came before we realized it. We put down our sickles and looked at each other. Our clothes were wet with sweat, but on every face there was a smile.
虽然形式是问句，但意义却是肯定的，并具有特别的强调作用，引起读者深思。如 "Should We Learn to Do Housework?" (我们要不要学做家务?) 的结尾。
Everyone should learn to do housework. Don't you agree, boys and girls?
结尾表示对将来的展望，或期待读者投入行动。如“Let's Go in for Sports”(让我们参加体育运动)的结尾：
As we have said above, sports can be of great value. They not only make people live happily but also help people to learn virtues and do their work better. A sound mind is in a sound body. Let's go in for sports.